The third step, evidence appraisal, involves taking the acquired information, and critiquing it by systematically reviewing its relevance, validity and its application to your specific clinical question. In other words, the investigator must ask three essential questions:
- What are the results?
- Are the results valid?
the results help to answer
my clinical question?
(Adapted from Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.)
Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument - Original and updated AGREEII:
Assesses the quality of clinical guidelines.
What is critical appraisal?
From the University of Warwick Library
CEBM Critical Appraisal Worksheets:
Assess the quality of systematic reviews, diagnostic studies, and RCTs.
Appraising the Evidence:
From the "Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice" website by Duke University Medical Center Library and Health Sciences Library at UNC, Chapel Hill.
Critical Appraisal of Evidence:
From the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Toronto
Tool which assesses potential for bias in the study (internal validity) and evaluates its generalizability (external validity).